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With cannabis becoming legal across a growing number of states such as California and Colorado, people are increasingly considering the prospect of cultivating their own plants. Some are doing so for personal use whereas others are more interested in growing on a commercial level. No matter the reasons for becoming a marijuana gardener, growing requires knowledge of a few key elements.
A Brief Overview of the Marijuana-Growing Essentials
From juicy, nutrient-packed fruits and vegetables to decorative flowers and greenery, all plants need certain basic elements in order to grow and thrive. Marijuana is no different. While some cannabis plants are hardy enough to survive harsh conditions, every strain is sure to produce higher, more potent yields in suitable environments. This means providing just the right mix of the vital requirements.
- Heat: cannabis plants need just the right amount of heat to grow properly. When temperatures are too high, plants wither; if it is too cold, foliage cannot carry out the many processes needed to flourish. You could compare plants to people in this regard. In cold weather, we tend to curl up and try to conserve our own body heat and energy. When we are warm and cozy, we tend to stretch out and soak in the heat. In sweltering temperatures, though, we sweat and can easily succumb to heat stroke.
- Nutrients: without the right vitamins and minerals, seeds cannot sprout and grow into healthy, mature plants. Potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen are vital nutrients for plants, but others are necessary as well in smaller amounts. These vitamins and minerals can come from soil, fertilizer, potting mix, nutrient-solutions, or a combination of sources.
- Water: water serves a few important roles in gardening. For one, it aids in drawing in nutrients and distributing them to various parts of the plants. Water mixes with soil or other growth media. From there, plants’ roots draw in the nutrient-rich fluid where it can be used as needed. Secondly, water helps plants maintain their structural integrity, so they do not droop or wilt.
- Light: lights help plants transform nutrients into food via a process called photosynthesis. If they do not have adequate amounts of the right types of light, they cannot metabolize all the nutrients they take in. When they are getting optimum light, though, the chlorophyll contained within the plants springs to action and keeps the metabolic processes going.
All these elements come together to help seeds germinate and grow into lush plants burgeoning with whatever fruits they are genetically equipped to provide. In the case of cannabis, this would be sumptuous buds ready to provide CBD, THC or a potent blend of the two compounds.
Exploring Common Types of Artificial Lighting
While each of those components is crucial to marijuana plant health, light and heat may well be the most fundamental factors in the growing equation. When those plants do not receive enough of the right types of light and heat, no amount of nutrients and water are beneficial. Plants grown outdoors get their light and warmth from the sun, but those cultivated indoors require a great deal more human intervention. Obviously states like Arizona and Florida are going to get a little bit more of these magic ingredients than places like Minnesota, where most growers are forced to adapt to the indoors.
Artificial light and heat provided through grow lights is necessary for plants that spend their lives inside. Standard incandescent bulbs will not suffice. Cannabis plants need a broad spectrum of light at various intensities. Only specialized lights can provide this type of control and diversity.
Marijuana grow lamps are available in numerous forms. They are designed to simulate the sun’s heat and range. Each type of grow light has its own distinct set of benefits and disadvantages.
Compact Fluorescent Bulbs
Compact fluorescent, or CFL bulbs are among the most common and readily available alternatives for growing cannabis plants. Their comparatively low cost makes them popular among small-scale marijuana gardeners and those who are new to the process. Since CFLs are designed for use with conventional sockets, you will need very little extra equipment to reap their benefits.
Keep in mind, different types of CFLs are on the market. Some give off brighter, warmer light whereas others provide cooler light from more specific areas of the spectrum. Either way, CFLs generate less intense light and heat than other options, so you will need to place them closer to your cannabis plants.
Indoor growers also commonly use traditional fluorescent bulbs. They put out a great deal of light and heat in comparison to CFLs, and they are considered more energy efficient than certain other alternatives. Fluorescent grow lamps last longer than some of their counterparts as well.
While fluorescent lamps, particularly the T5 versions, offer several advantages, it’s important to keep a few key points in mind when using these types of grow lights. You will need to place them further away from the plants than CFLs, and reflectors are also needed to help direct and disperse light in the right directions.
Metal Halide Lamps
Metal halide lamps are high-intensity discharge bulbs. When using the lamps, you’ll need to have reflectors and ballasts in place to help distribute light and regulate the amount of electricity running through the bulbs. Metal halide lamps produce high levels of heat and give off intense, broad-spectrum light.
Because of the excessive heat metal halide lamps generate, you will most likely need some type of ventilation in place to help regulate the temperatures reaching your cannabis plants. If you have only a few plants, a standard oscillating fan may work. For larger operations, exhaust fans might be necessary.
High-Pressure Sodium Lamps
High-pressure sodium lamps do not give off quite the same variety of light as other types of bulbs. Their output is concentrated more on the red end of the spectrum. As is the case with metal halide bulbs, these lamps require reflective hoods and ballasts for proper light distribution and to avoid overloads. Adequate ventilation is also necessary to help counteract the amount of heat these lights generate.
LEDs have gained a great deal of attention over the last several years due to their efficiency and longevity. They are also suitable options for indoors if you choose models offering full-spectrum lighting. They do not give off as much heat as metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps, but it is important to leave enough space between these lamps and your plants to prevent overheating.
In terms of simplicity and versatility, LED stop the lighting list. Many setups come ready to plug in and use as opposed to needing assembly. Despite their energy efficiency, LEDs are often more costly to operate than their counterparts. They are also most suitable for small-scale operations unless you have several LED sets in place.
So those are the types of grow lamps most often used for indoor cultivation. They are all considered efficient and effective though some are more expensive to purchase and operate than others. Certain extra equipment and effort may be needed with each type of lighting as well. Still, it is possible to find kits containing all the components you will need for success.
Delving into the Intricacies of Indoor Grow Lighting
Now that we have covered the different types of indoor grow lamps, it is time to discuss a few more in-depth details. Not all artificial lighting is created equally. At the same time, plants have varying needs depending on their growth stages and other factors.
Standard fluorescent grow lights and CFL bulbs are perfect for early stages of plant growth. Their relatively low heat output is not as likely to damage tender, young plants as other options. Since they generate a broad spectrum of light, they cover most of the crucial bases as well.
Metal halide lamps are generally used for cannabis plants’ vegetative stages. This is the stint between sprouting and being ready to bloom. These lamps closely resemble the sun’s light during summer months. When the time comes for plants to begin flowering, high-pressure sodium lamps are best because they mimic autumn sunlight.
While the types of light and heat grow lamps produce is important, those are not the only factors to consider. Amount of light received is also crucial. When grown outdoors, plants are exposed to light during daytime hours and darkness at night. It is important to give them the same type of balance when they are grown inside.
During the seedling stage, your plants can handle extended periods of light. Once they enter the vegetative stage, they will need a bit less light. It is best to give them 18 hours of light followed by six hours of darkness during this phase. At the flowering stage, they thrive best with 12 hours of light and 12 of darkness per 24-hour period.
All Things Considered
Cultivating your marijuana plants indoors offers ample advantages. You have more control over growing conditions, and the plants are much less vulnerable to insect invasions and pathogens. It is also possible to produce cannabis all year long rather than only during its typical growing season since you are able to simulate outdoor growing conditions as needed.
With that said, growing healthy, productive cannabis plants indoors takes a certain amount of effort. Having the right equipment in place also helps. Lighting is one of the most critical factors. While LED and CFL lights can technically be used for all stages of plant growth, metal halide and high-pressure sodium are most appropriate for certain phrases.
Take a look at the specific traits and needs of the cannabis strains you are thinking of cultivating. Choose your lighting based on those details as well as the number of plants you are going to grow and the size of your indoor gardening space. As long as you pay close attention to the needs of your plants and use extra care during their growth cycles, you should be able to produce high CBD and high THC crops with high yields and repeatable results.
Weed Seeds USA has a huge catalogue of seeds – listing everything from autoflower seeds to 710 seeds – each with a detailed strain profile. Knowing the timeline of the estimated growth cycles enables indoor growers to acquire the necessary lighting equipment to match their plants well before their seeds even arrive. If you are ambitious about really producing on a large scale, also be sure to check out our unbeatable pricing on wholesale seeds.