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THE ULTIMATE CANNABIS GLOSSARY

Alphabetical

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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A.

April 20th – 420 Day

In metropolitan cannabis-friendly cities like Vancouver, BC people will gather by the thousands on April 20that Sunset Beach, Thornton Park, the downtown art gallery, and other popular locations frequented by stoners and weed advocates. The event is a great opportunity for activists and new businesses to get their message heard, and even pass out a few sample products! Sensible BC, for example, is Canada’s largest reform group. Their leader Dana Larsen has been advocating for the decriminalization of marijuana in British Columbia since the early 2000’s. After Canada’s legalization. in 2018, the day takes on less of a politician tone and more of a a celebratory energy.

Apical Dominance

A term used in the plant kingdom that describes the nature of a plant to put the most energy into developing buds or flowers at the top central branch location. The Christmas-tree shape is a classic example of apical dominance, which works well in outdoor lighting when the sun moves across the sky, providing light to all parts of the plant throughout the day. For indoor growing with fixed overhead lighting, training the plants to have a flat even canopy will typically produce a higher yield than allowing them to maintain their natural apical dominance.

Ash Catcher

I separate attachment, usually made of glass, which attaches to your bong or dab rig to catch any cannabis material that should not be directly inhaled.

Ashtray

Any receptacle used to catch the ashes from a joint or from a dumped-out bong or pipe bowl. Many smokers today use a fully enclosed bud bucket or butt-bucket to contain the roaches once discarded.

Atomizer

The component of a vaporizer that heats up in order to vaporize the cannabis oil, shatter, or other concentrate.

Autoflower

This classification of seeds have been prepared with genetic influence from the ruderalis plant. The autoflowering characteristics enable the plant to switch from vegetative growth to the flowering stage without any change to the lighting cycle, whereas most photoperiod plants must be reduced from over 12 hours of light to under 12 hours of light in order for this change to happen. These types of cannabis plants are said to automatically flower after a set number of weeks in veg.

B.

Back-Cross

When a grower selects two plants of the same genotype (same strain), but with different phenotypes (physical characteristics). This creates a more stable offspring and maintains genetic variability in the crop, which becomes lost when you clone for many successive generations.

Banger

A small surface where marijuana concentrates are to be ‘dabbed’ or vaporized. Typically made of titanium, ceramic, or quartz because of the intense heath these materials can withstand. The banger is heated to nearly red-hot temperatures with a torch and then the chosen concentrate gets instantly combusted and then inhaled.

Beverages (infused)

Once cannabis oil is extracted, usually as BHO, it can be stirred into suspension to create a liquid edible product that consumers can drink to get high. Infused cannabis beverages usually take effect within an hour and provide a long-lasting buzz of up to 3-4 hours, depending on the potency. Some examples are the THC infused coffee made by Somatik or the CBD-infused Sparkling Beverage line from Sprig, both founded in California.

Bhang

A traditional recipe for a cannabis infused beverage from India, using dried marijuana, tea, milk, and spices.

BHO

Butane Hash Oil. As you may imaging, these types of cannabis concentrates are created using butane as the extraction solvent. Depending on how the product is handled through the final stages, BHO can take on many textures including Wax, Crumble, Live Resin, Honeycomb, Shatter, and more!

Blunt

A large sized joint (rolled marijuana), usually comparable to the size of a cigar. It may also refer to a joint that is just larger than average, but filled with really good weed, and perhaps even a few drips of cannabis oil. A blunt can get one user very high or be shared around a large group.

Bong

A device for smoking cannabis, designed typically with a long neck and a lower chamber that holds water to cool and filter the smoke before it is inhaled. You can find bongs on the market made from glass, acrylic, even silicone. A bong will enable you to inhale large quantities of smoke at a time when compared to a pipe or joint. Most bongs consist of 3 components – The body, down stem, and bowl. Also sometimes referred to as a waterpipe, bubbler, or gravity bong.

Broad-Spectrum

Represents cannabis products that has most, but not all, of the possible cannabinoids from a given strain or sample. In most cases, it means that a product will contain all of the CBD, CBN, and CBG from the whole plant, but none of the psychoactive THC.

Bubble Hash

A special kind of hash made using an ice water wash, resulting in a product that bubbles when lit in a pipe or other smoking device. Bubble Hash is an entirely solventless extract with only THC and terpenes in the final product.

Bubbler

Sometimes synonymous with bongs, but usually describes a device that is more hand-held in nature. A bubbler also contains a mouthpiece, bowl, stem, and some reservoir for water. Similar to traditional water pipes, this enables the smoke to percolate through the water for a smoother hit. Like a pipe, the bubbler often has a carb (small opening) that needs to be covered with a finger or thumb while the bowl is being lit.

Budder

A type of cannabis concentrate that is usually high in THC (60-70%) and resembles the consistency of chilled butter, softer and more pliable than shatter. Sometimes shatter can ‘auto-budder’ and change consistency if not all of the lipids are properly removed by winterization.

Budder can also appear naturally from other BHO extracts and solventless rosin if the manufacturer stirs up the final product when it is in the final cooling stages.

C

Calyx

This in an important structural part of the cannabis flower that protects the reproductive organs (pistils). The calyx is the first part of the flower that develops and is also the foundation upon which the rest of the bud is formed. They also contain the highest concentration of trichomes and resin than any other part of the flower.

Cannabinoid

A classification of plant molecules that directly interact with the human endocannabinoid system. Some examples of plant-based phytocannabinoids coming from the Cannabis plant are THC, CBD, CBG, and CBN, just to name a few. There are over 120 other cannabinoids that have been discovered in the marijuana plant, which all have varying levels of psychoactive or medicinal activity.

Cannabis Oil

Sometimes referred to as 710 on the streets (upside-down OIL), oil is likely the oldest form of concentrate next to hand-made hash. Because the cannabinoids are all oil-soluble, isolating things like THC and CBD is easily done with a hydrocarbon-based solvent. Primary examples are Ethanol, Isopropyl, Butane, and Propane which can be used to make varying qualities of hash oil (lower quality) or honey oil (higher quality). Infused cooking oils can also be made with cannabis by soaking in a carrier such as coconut or olive oil with a low steady temperature supplied for several hours.

Canopy

Much like the way it describes the upper part of the forest or jungle, the canopy of a cannabis growing room is the top third of the plants where most of the dominant bud sites will be found. The canopy receives most of the light from above, so growers must ensure they prune back the large leaves appropriate so that the light can penetrate through to the mid-level buds as well. A canopy that is too dense will also reduce airflow and lead to potential humidity and mold problems.

Capsules

Also called caps, tabs, or simply weed pills, these are available for sale at certain dispensaries and come with varying levels of THC, CBD, or both. For example, 10mg 1:1 Capsules are going to contain 10 milligrams of THC and 10 milligrams of CBD. Capsules may be designed with different blends of cannabinoids to be most effective for sleep, anxiety, inflammation, or focus and concentration. Doses should be clearly labelled on the packaging so that consumers can start low and go slow.

Carb

Frequently found as a small hole on the side of a pipe or bubbler in order to create a point of sealing the airway. When lighting your bowl, the carb should be closed (plugged) to mix fresh oxygen. This is akin to the work done by an automotive carburetor, which mixes oxygen in with the burning fuel. When the smoker releases the carb, it enables the chamber to be cleared of smoke quickly, giving a nice quick toke.  This small opening may have other slang terms, including ‘shottie’ and ‘plug’.

Carb Cap

This accessory is more used in the word of dabbing, where the carb cap is used to cover the nail or banger to contain some of the cannabinoid-rich vapor which could otherwise float away. A carb cap could be attached to the end of a dabbing tool, or its own decorative piece made of glass, titanium, quartz, or even stone. There are directional carb caps and more symmetrical spinner caps. Novelty carb caps will have familiar 420 symbols or characters, while more traditional bowl covers will be plain and elegant.

Cartridge

Electronic oil pens require a containing-vessel to hold the cannabis oil that is to be vaporized. Cartridges vary in size, and can contain THC, CBD, or any combination thereof. Some ‘carts’ may be disposable, while others can be re-fillable with cannabis vape oil. Many cartridges for vape pens on the market contain the atomizer within it, which simply needs to connect to a simple battery in order to function.

Caryophyllene

This terpene molecule gives off a spicy, woody, and peppery smell. It is the predominantly noticeable scent to back pepper and is also present in cinnamon. Strains high in caryophyllene content include Super Silver Haze, Rockstar, and Skywalker OG. This terpene may help to treat anxiety, depression, and inflammation. Caryophyllene is the only known terpene that acts as a cannabinoid on the CB1 and CB2 receptors.

CB1

These cannabinoid receptors are mainly concentrated in the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spine. One of the human endocannabinoids called anandamide naturally binds to the CB1 receptors

CB2

These cannabinoids receptors are mainly concentrated in the peripheral nervous system, which includes the nerves and immune cells of the spleen, tonsils, and thymus gland. CB2 receptors are also found in the brain, but not at the same dense concentration as the CB1 receptors.

CBC

Cannabichromene, is one of the hundreds of cannabinoid molecules found in the cannabis plant. They have a similar structure to that of THC and CBD, but are not believed to have a psychedelic impact, but do seem to block pain receptors throughout the body. Alternative names include Cannabichrome, cannabinochromene, or pentylcannabichromene.

CBD

Cannabidiol is the most predominant non-psychoactive cannabinoid, helping to relieve anxiety and inflammation, among other things. CBD interacts primarily with the CB2 receptors and can be present in marijuana strains in levels anywhere from 0.3% to 10% or more. Taking CBD alongside THC may help to decrease the perceived high that a user feels. Medicinal benefits of CBD therapy reach far and wide, and it is legal for use across the United States, although in some states documentation from a Doctor is still required.

CBD Isolate

also called CBD Powder, this would be the purified crystalline extract of Cannabidiol once all the other plant material and terpenes are removed. In essence, the isolate should be 99.9% pure CBD. Isolate can be eaten, smoked, or vaped to take effectiveness. The CBD isolate may also be added to a small amount of high-proof alcohol or oil carrier to create a more diluted tincture.

CBD Oil

Synonymous with hemp oil, this product would refer to a preparation where all other cannabinoids, like THC and CBG, have been removed. Most likely an edible oil, this product would not get the user high, but rather just provide the relieving benefits that Cannabidiol offers. Sticky concentrated CBD oil may be called phoenix tears or Rick Simpson Oil, after the man who popularized the technique. Tinctures can be made with MCT oil (coconut oil), olive oil, vegetable glycerine or other lipid -based solvents. CBD oil may also be available in vape-pen cartridges.

CBD Powder

see “CBD Isolate” above.

CBG

Cannabigerol is one of the minor cannabinoids found in marijuana, as it is usually found in levels less than 1%. This is likely because CBG is more or less a precursor molecule that is broken down to produce THCA, CBDA, and CBCA. CBG has an anti-inflammatory effect in mice and also has shown to protect neurons against nerve cell degeneration. It is also anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, and an appetite stimulant.

CBN

Cannabinol is a Cannabinoid found more concentrated in older stashes of marijuana as it is produced through the degradation of THC. Although CBN doesn’t get you high, it does have anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective qualities. CBN displays synergistic effects when increasing the euphoric effects of THC or the sleep-inducing qualities of certain terpenes.

CFL

Compact Fluorescent Lights are used in some grow room setups because they are cheap to purchase, can be used in most traditional light sockets, and are extremely low on power. The downsides of CFL lights include the narrow spectrum of light that they actually provide and the lack of heat that they put off, which means possibly adding another separate form of heat to your grow room. These bulbs essentially take the technology of a long fluorescent tube (Mercury vapor and argon gas) and shape it into a coil-like bulb that screws into traditional incandescent light fixture sockets.

Chlorophyll

Microscopic green pigment cells in the leaves of plants, including cannabis, that absorb the blue and red wavelengths of light to drive the cellular process of photosynthesis. This is how the plants generate energy for growth and reproduction. While chlorophyll is helpful during the plant’s growth cycle, you will want to eliminate as much of it as possible while properly drying and curing your cannabis. Smoking bud that still has chlorophyll present has an unpleasant damp and grassy flavor.

Chromatography

A method of chemical separation that is used to isolate cannabinoids from one another. Essentially the sample is passed through a material (either a liquid, gel, or gas) and each of the component molecules travel at different rates and can be isolated from the others.

Chronic

Rooted in the Greek word “khronos” for time, usually describing an ailment or disease whose symptoms last a long time. Chronic is also a slang term to describe the marijuana bud itself. Popularized by the 1992 rap album by Dr. Dre titled “The Chronic”, this word implies the bud is very potent and long lasting.

Clone

A clone is an exact genetic copy of its mother or parent plant. With cannabis plants, cuttings from a mother plant can be taken and grown as if it was starting from the seedling stage. Cloning is an easy way to replicate the phenotype of the plant that you really like, but it does come with the downside that genetic variability does have survival advantages. For example, if a certain disease breaks out in your grow room, clones of the same plant will all have the same susceptibility, whereas plants grown from seeds may have more or less resistance to disease than their neighboring plant.

Closed-Loop Extraction

When producing cannabis concentrates, it is best to have a sealed environment that keeps 100% of the solvent in, and also all potential contaminants out. Closed-loop extraction involves using a vacuum sealed system that is far safer than “open blast” setups, which get their name from the high likelihood of explosion when flammable solvents are in use in the open air. Closed-loop extracts are cleaner burning and are typically more pure from a vacuum-purged setup.

CO2 Extract

This is a method of using pressurized Carbon Dioxide in order to extract valuable cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. Because CO2 is a natural environmental gas, this process is considered solvent-free and is much safer for the environment and safer to produce than methods involving alcohol or butane. CO2 extracts usually end up with golden-amber color and a thick honey-like texture. CO2 oil can be smoked, vaped, or eaten directly in the form of a tincture.

Coco-coir

A popular growing medium for cannabis growing that is created from the shredded husks which are a by-product of the coconut industry. These natural fibers are chemically inert and seem to have great water retention properties. Other benefits include great breathability for well-oxygenated roots and is available at most garden centers for a moderate cost.

Concentrates

This term covers the wide category of products that can be made from extracting the cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant, and condensing them in a concentrated form. You can take a strain of sativa or indica weed that typically yields 18% to 22% THC can be concentrated into a wax or shatter that measures 65% to 70% THC by weight. Dozens of other names for concentrates have been developed, that describe the look, feel or texture of the material being produced. See also: Badder, Crumble, Diamonds, Caviar, Sauce, Hash, Sap, Rosin, and more!

Cone

Often describing the shape of a large joint. Broad at the lighting end and narrow at the base where there will often be a filter. Some companies offer pre-rolled, pre-packaged cones that you can gently stuff with your favorite ground-up bud, twist the end, and light at your leisure. Very helpful for new cannabis consumers that cannot roll their own joints.

Cone Filler

A convenient accessory that can stuff a number of cones at a time, anywhere from 4 to 6 cones, or upwards of 50 to 100 at a time for industrial models. Sometimes the cone filler requires the operator to manually scrape across the ground bud and stuff them individually. However automated cone fillers have been developed that are equipped with an agitator and automated pneumatic cone stuffing!

Consumption

However you choose to consume your marijuana products, this is they widely used to term to wrap up all the different ways that you can get it in you. Consumption methods for cannabis products include edible, topical, sublingual, smoking, vaporizing, and suppository.

Cottonmouth

Describes the sensation of dry mouth that many consumers experience after consuming cannabis. The effects are especially noticeable when a person is dehydrated already, although the actual mechanism at work is to do with decreased saliva. The THC and CBD consumed binds to the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the salivary glands and reduces their output. It doesn’t seem to matter whether the product is smoked or swallowed in a capsule, the effects take effect system-wide through distribution in the bloodstream.

Cotyledon

These are first group of baby leaves that develop from a newly sprouted cannabis seed. This small pair of embryonic leaves are also known as the primordial leaves. These are unique in that they do not provide much in the way of photosynthesis but rather come packed with nutrients to nourish the new seedling. The early cotyledon pair will fall off shortly after the plant has developed its first few sets of real fan leaves.

Couch-lock

Have you ever smoked a heavy indica strain and felt as though your body had melted right into the fabric of your couch? Typically, the strains high in the terpene Myrcene have a highly sedating effect that can leave users feeling chained to the couch. Also, when growers choose to harvest their plants late (when the trichomes have all gone from milky white to dark brown), the effects take on more of a lazy and groggy high than when plants are harvested earlier in their prime. Sometimes the only cure for couch-lock is a nice long snooze.

Cross

A term from early genetics denoting the interchange of genetic information when two different plants reproduce. A cannabis strain breeder will take a male and female plant (usually from different lineages) and cross them to produce a new hybrid strain. Many classic strains of cannabis have been crossed in order to provide new and unique flavors. Once a popular cross is established, it can be entered for competitions like the cannabis cup and potentially live on for generations.

Curing

This important final stage comes after the cannabis buds have been successfully hung and dried for 5 to 15 days at 45 to 55% ambient humidity. From here, growers will trim the buds and pack them loosely into glass jars. When you seal them in, moisture from the inner parts of the bud will balance out and re-hydrate the outer dry parts of the bud. You will have to let the jars breathe for a few minutes twice a day for there to be fresh oxygen exchanged. After 2 to 3 weeks of successful curing your buds should have that nice squishy feeling rather than dry and crunchy. Proper curing means that you can store your cannabis on the shelf for a long time without the risk of mold ever developing.

Crumble

A cannabis concentrate that close up to the naked eye looks like a golden-colored apple crumble. This can be produced intentionally from other BHO extracts like wax or shatter by whipping the slab over a hot plate before vacuum purging. This creates pockets of air that come out like died honeycomb wax or a moist crumble. Alternatively, some extractors just turn up the temperature in their vacuum purge stage which helps to speed up drying and create the pockets of air.

D

Dab Mat

Those who have smoked concentrates will know, this stuff is very sticky to deal with. And once a bit of unused dab makes its way on to your coffee table’s surface it can be nearly impossible to get it off. This is why companies started to market silicone dab mats, or dab pads, as an easy-to-clean surface that can protect your furniture and help keep your smoking tools sterile as well.

Dab Rig

A dab rig is a re-purposed bong for smoking concentrates at higher temperatures. Much like the classic bong, most rigs have a water-reservoir for filtering the smoke, or vapor. There can be any number of added features to the rig such as ash-catchers, extra percolators and diffusers, usually at an increased cost. Instead of a bowl for dried cannabis, the end of the dab rig will be equipped with a banger or nail, which is to be heated to scorching temperatures before the concentrate is to be “dabbed” onto the hot surface.

Dab Tool

The tool used to gather the sticky concentrate product (shatter, wax, or oil) and transfer it to the hot banger or nail. Dab tools, or dabbers, can also be helpful in transferring small amounts of the concentrates into a refillable vape pen, since not much is needed, and it can get easily stuck to fingers. Most dab tools on the market are made of glass, quartz, or titanium, although people in a pinch have been known to use any number of household items as their dab tool – from a toothpick to a metal kitchen knife.

Dabbing

Refers to the method of consumption for cannabis concentrates that involves a desktop-style dab rig. Dab pens have been developed as a more portable option where you can add just a dab of your favorite concentrate to the atomizer chamber and enjoy quite a strong high from just one or two puffs. Dabbing has the benefit of giving users a higher CBD or THC deliver system that contains less of the plant matter and none of the burnt paper that smoking provides.

Dank

A slang word to describe a particularly potent smelling batch of cannabis. Dank can sometimes have unfavorable connotations, like a cool dank cellar, but in the world of cannabis dank absolutely represents good things. A high degree of dankness would tell the user, through scent alone, that this is a high-quality bud since dank is proportional to terpenes and concentration of trichomes.

Decarboxylation

Sometimes abbreviated to “decarbing”, this process involves the slow gentle heating of harvested cannabis buds in order to get them into the psychoactive form. Fresh cannabis flowers, and most concentrates, are high in the precursor molecule THCA, which is non-intoxicating. When smoked or vaporized, the product is instantly decarbed into THC. With edible preparations however, like cannabutter or homemade tinctures, the product must be decarboxylated in an oven at 220 degrees Fahrenheit for around 30 to 40 minutes. Some producers may choose to decarboxylate at a slightly lower temperature for an extended time to better preserve the delicate terpenes and cannabinoids.

Decriminalization

This is a step towards the legalization of marijuana where the possession or consumption of products are no longer punishable by law. In other words, there is no criminal offense that someone can be prosecuted for when using within the allotted amounts. Carrying dried cannabis over the state’s limits (such as one ounce per person) may result in criminal charges, as can having your bud individually packaged that are clearly for resale.

Defoliation

Literally translates to “removing leaves”, which in the case of early cannabis pruning involves only the larges fan leaves that are beginning to yellow and become discolored at the edged. A grower can also practice defoliation in the first month of flowering to encourage larger bud growth. There needs to be enough fan leaf support to drive photosynthesis but leaves also take energy for the plant to maintain. Growers will also defoliate their plants in the final weeks of flowering to prepare the plants for an easier harvest and less work for trimming after the buds have dried.

Desktop Vaporizers

A unit that is designed to heat a sample of cannabis to its vaporizing point rather than combusting it with an open flame as done with a joint or pipe. Desktop vapes will typically come with options of having a bag to collect the vapor and inhaled from, or a whip design which resembles a long bendy straw that you ‘sip’ from.

Dispensary

This could be any retail store location operating as a business to sell cannabis or cannabis-related products. State laws will determine what qualifications are necessary to obtain a legal dispensary license. Dispensaries must follow strict quality-control measures and abide by local regulations on what kind of edibles, flowers, and concentrates they can distribute. Dispensaries can operate online, but local shops create a number of jobs from budtenders, up to management and marketing opportunities.

Disposable Cartridges

For convenience sake, make portable vape pens now come with pre-filled cartridges of oil, which are designed to be thrown away after use. Some will try to re-fill their disposable cartridges, but this usually ends up in a big sticky mess. The cost of this hardware, even with the heating element within, is so minimal compared to the value of the product inside, that throwing them away is not done at a financial cost. The environmental cost, however, may be present as these are waste materials that definitely do not decompose.

Distillate

This term refers to the chemical process taken to ensure a single molecule is isolated, such as THC or CBD. By distilling away other cannabinoids and terpenes, you end up with a very measurable product that is ideal for dosing out capsules or edibles. Distillation also removes unwanted impurities such as sugars, salts, and chlorophyll. Although they can sometimes have flavored terpenes added back in, CBD distillate and THC distillate come in 99% purity if done right.

Doobies

With the singular term being doobie or dooby, this is a slang reference to the marijuana cigarette, or joint. The pre-rolled joint is now a popularly selling category at dispensaries across the nation, since people may lack the skills or simply be too lazy to roll their own. Doobs have been around since humans learned how to develop pressed paper, or possibly even earlier. Evidence or marijuana use in ancient times shows that cannabis was once rolled up within dried hemp leaves or tobacco leaves for smoking.

Dose

This refers to the amount of a cannabinoid contained within a single serving of medication, pre-determined by the user or their medical professional. For example, a bottle of capsules may contain a set dose of 10 milligrams per pill, while a tincture may have 100 or 1000 milligrams of the THC or CBD in the bottle, that you will need to ‘dose out’ with the proper number of drops. If not purchasing through the advice of health-care provider, be sure to follow the instructions of the packaging or consult a friend that has some experience. The golden rule of cannabis dosing is start low and go slow.

Down Stems

The part of a bong or water-pipe that delivers smoke from the bowl down into the water reservoir. Down stems are typically sold by diameter and length to fit an assortment of glass bongs. They are designed to be easily removed for cleaning and replacement when need be.

Dwarf

A classification of marijuana seeds that grow to top out around two feet in height. With short stature and a dense bud layout, these plants are ideal for what has come to be known as micro growing or micro cultivation. You don’t need much room to grow a single dwarf plant, and many of them are also autoflowering in nature.  Dwarf marijuana strains are often also very bushy and can therefore respond well to low-stress training techniques that involve strategic pruning.

Dry-Sift

This solventless cannabis extract is somewhat similar to kief, or the natural ‘THC dust’ that develops in the bottom of your weed grinder after a few weeks of use. Dry-sift is produced by shaking or tumbling a bunch of dried buds (often cooled to near-frozen), and then just the trichomes fall through the screen leaving the rest of the plant material behind. The dry-sift can then be sprinkled directly onto joints or pressed into hash, rosin, and other derivatives.

E

Edibles

The term edibles has come to encompass the vast variety of products for human consumption that contain marijuana products. Edibles are made sometimes with CBD-only ingredients but are more often found containing decarboxylated THC strains. Available from home bakers who make magic brownies or space cookies, and now also professional dispensaries which carry accurately dosed gummies, caramels, capsules, and tinctures – all of which can be taken orally. Edibles are a perfect for someone who does not want to smoke, and also gives the user a longer lasting high that is felt through the whole body rather than just in the mind.

Eighth

Represents a measurement of dried cannabis equal to an eighth of an ounce (28 grams / 8 = 3.5 grams). Hundreds of slang terms have likely been developed through the decades, to keep people’s conversations covert, but some of these include eighter, eight-ball, 8-ball, half quarter, a slice, a cut, and dub.

E-juice

This would be the liquid cannabis oil designed to go in a re-fillable vaporizer cartridge. E-juice is typically made with a purified product such as CO2 distillate oil or THC isolate, and then given a runnier consistency with the addition of glycerol or vegetable glycerin. Natural flavors (terpenes) or synthetic flavors may be added during manufacturing to give the product a unique selling feature.

E-nail

An electronic alternative to a glass nail or quartz banger. E-nails plug into to a 120V wall-outlet and provided a continuously heated coil that keeps the titanium nail at a set temperature. Your e-nail may have a manual (analogue) dial or a digital display that lets you set the temperature. For dabbing concentrates, most consumers keep the heat set between 500 degrees and 800 degrees Fahrenheit.

Endocannabinoid System

This is a complex system of receptors and signaling molecules found in humans, most other animals, and even plants! The phytocannabinoids found in marijuana include the popular THC and CBD as well as the lesser-known CBG, CBC, and CBN. Humans produce our own endocannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). The endocannabinoid system has only been heavily researched in the last 30 years and we know so far it helps regulate postnatal development, appetite, the immune-system, sensation of pain, memory, and mood.

Endocannabinoids

Molecules that act on the endocannabinoid system. Includes all plant and animal analogues that seem to be effective across all organisms. The primary endocannabinoids in humans are Anandamide, arichodonyglycerol, and arichodonyglycerol ether, which all behave in similar ways to the other neurotransmitters in the body.

Entourage Effect

This term summarizes the way that the hundreds of cannabinoids and terpenes found within the whole cannabis plant act synergistically to provide a greater benefit than what can be accomplished by each individual part on its own. There is a lot to be said for the benefits of isolating pure substances, but there is substantial evidence for the holistic side of the argument, where there are believed to be an exponential increase of ‘power in numbers’ where hidden benefits become discovered.

Eucalyptol

One of the monoterpenes that has a fresh mint-like smell that is both cooling and a little spicy. It can be found in (you guessed it) eucalyptus, but also in ginger, tea tree, and sage. Eucalyptol has anti-inflammatory properties and also helps the plant by way of being a natural insect repellent.

Extraction

Any means by which a desired component, or compound, can be isolated from a sample, such as a trimmed bud or the whole plant. Methods from alcohol distillations and manual sifting to more complex gas-pressured systems and heated rosin presses have been developed to extract the valuable CBD and THC cannabinoids from the cannabis plant. Now more effort and research are going into extracting the terpenes as well which may have medicinal benefits all of their own.

F

F-1 Generation

This represents the first generation of a newly developed cannabis strain, also known as the first filial generation. The F-1generation from one male and one female plant can give rise to many slightly different phenotypes, displaying the genetic variability that occurs in nature from mutations and errors in cell division. Two F-1 offspring that are mated together would lead to the production of an F-2, while mating the F-1 with the original parent plant would be called a back-cross.

Feminized

With the help of some human intervention, we can now produce seeds that have a guaranteed feminine plant outcome with the advent of feminization. What happens is a female plant is physically or chemically stressed to produce pollen sacs. This is a natural defense mechanism of ‘auto-hermaphrodism” to make seeds and protect its genetic line in harsh conditions. This resulting female pollen will only contain genes with the X chromosome, so can therefore only produce female seeds. Some of the common stressors to promote self-pollination include colloidal silver or thiosulphate solution to be sprayed on a portion of the plant.

Filters

This may be used to describe the small piece of paper rolled up at the end of your joint, to prevent cannabis debris from flying up and entering your mouth. In the reference to bongs, the water is set up to filter the smoke before you inhale it. Many grow rooms will require a good quality carbon filter to remove the thick smell from the air that leaves your room. And you can also filter out unwanted by-products such as plant waxes and lipids when attempting to make more purified cannabis concentrates.

Fimming

A technique similar to topping that was creating with an accidental miss. To “fim” actually comes from the abbreviation “fuck I missed”. So, instead of completely cutting off the top of the plant, a grower will just slice or shave off the upper growth haphazardly. This has less chance of overly stressing the plant and causing permanent damage, but also has a lower success rate than topping at actually preventing apical dominance.

Flavonoid

These naturally occurring plant molecules act as a protectant from oxidative stress in the cells. In humans, they can also help to reduce damage to the brain as well as reduce risk of cancer and improve heart health. Cannabis contains so many flavonoids, and therefore has a huge medicinal benefit that spans beyond just the THC and CBD aspect. Some health enthusiasts have discovered the benefits of hemp seeds or even juicing the entire hemp plant.

Flower

Just as in many other plant species, cannabis plants (both male and female) display their sexual organs in the form of a flower. Male flowers are much more thin and scraggly, often containing visible seed pods and male ‘bananas’ which look just as you would imagine. Female flowers are the classic thick, resin-covered buds that you may see on the high-times magazine cover. The anatomy of the flower is composed of many parts including the calyx, stigmas, pistil, and trichomes. Slang terms for cannabis flower may include buds, cones, colas, and chronic.

Flowering Time

This is the length of time a plant requires to produce fully matured flowers that are ready for harvest. Flowering time is recorded from the time the plant is flipped from vegetative stage, buy cutting the light to a 12/12 rotating schedule. The average indica plant will take about 8 to 10 weeks in flower while some sativa will keep going for 10 to 12 weeks or longer.

Full-Spectrum

Products with this description will contain the full-spread of cannabinoids and terpenes as they should be represented in the original plant itself. This may mean that your Full-spectrum CBD tincture does have trace amounts of THC in it as well. Full-spectrum products are often darker in colour than tinctures made from isolate. They will also contain more of a noticeable flavour because of the higher content of terpenes and flavonoids.

G

Ganja

This slang word to describe almost anything cannabis related originated from a Hindi word to describe the flowers of the plant. Between 1845 and 1917, Britain send tens of thousands of Indian slaves to Jamaica, who brought the gift of Ganja cultivation and how to prepare the various parts of the plant for consumption. This helped to solidify the beginning of the Rastafari movement which began to take shape in the 1930’s.

Genetics

The study of heredity and the variations of inherited characteristics. The founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk that was deeply interested in the reproduction of pea plants. He observed varying traits, such as flower shape and colour, that he attributes to discrete units of inheritance (i.e. genes). Genetics as it relates to cannabis helps to understand why certain strains offer the benefits that they do, and also gives us the opportunities to create our own breeds that will be optimized for growing in certain climates or for growing set cannabinoids.

Genotype

This describes the genetic make-up of a particular plant or strain of plants. The genotype is essentially the cellular blueprint from which the plant is built upon, and therefore determines the characteristics of that plant (height, color, scent, etc).

Germination

The process by which seeds ‘crack open’ and spring into life is triggered by the seed sitting in optimal conditions for an extended time. Dark, warmth, and moisture are the ingredients for success when convincing your seeds to germinate. Essentially you are awakening the dormant seed with the convincing environment that says – “spring is here!”. Best results can be achieved with using a damp paper towel inside a zip-seal bag for a few days. The seed has germinated when the white taproot starts to emerge. Some growers call this process germing, sprouting, or cracking.

Glassware

There are many forms of glass that can be purchased for the consumption of cannabis products. Everything from pipes to dab tools and bong downstems could be included in this category, along with more elaborate custom-blown dab rigs and bowls. Glass is a cheap medium to work with, and although it is not as heat tolerate as quartz or ceramic, you can get it pretty hot with a flame or torch without causing any damage. The type of glass used that is most heat tolerant is called borosilicate glass. Glassware can of course break, so most consumers will keep their valuable glass pieces on a shelf, out of the reach of children and pets.

Grass

Another slang term for marijuana, perhaps thanks to the grassy smell of freshly cut poor-quality cannabis. Also, large bags of cannabis trim could look similar to grass clippings to the untrained eye.

Green out

This is the sensation felt when an individual consumes more than their idea dose. A traditional overdose is not really possible when smoking marijuana, mainly because the user “greens out” and essentially falls asleep on the couch before they can light up another bowl. When greening out on edibles, there is more of a risk of an unpleasant experience, because the high can come along all at once, and if you took too much this could lead to a very dizzying and nauseating trip. The best things to do when greening out include taking rest, vitamin C, and some CBD if you have it on hand. No harm has every come to someone from greening out, unless you are of course behind the wheel of a car.

Gummies

the medicated kind of gummies will contain a measured dose of CBD or THC to be taken orally. This principle of “a spoonful of sugar” that helps the medicine go down just makes for a fun and easy way for people to get a predictable high in a way that is easy to package and consume. Some gummies can closely resemble typically store-bought gummies, so be absolutely sure that these are not within reach of any children or unsuspecting adults.

Grinders

A tool developed to quickly and evenly grind up cannabis buds for smoking. Increasing surface area and creating a fluffy texture makes it easier to roll your joints when you compare with old school methods of cutting up your bud with a pair of tiny scissors. Grinders today are often made of acrylic, wood, aluminum, or titanium and also come with a variety of features and storage compartments.

H

Half Ounce

Equates to 14 grams (28 grams to an ounce). Also called a half-O, half ozzie, or half-Z you will get two-quarters or four-eighths in a half ounce.

Hand-Whipping

A technique used in the manufacturing of concentrates, which can help to allow excess solvent to escape from the extract more quickly. This can be dangerous in practice when done in an open system and should be left to professionals. There are automated machines that now integrate this stirring with a small stainless rod in order to speed up the process. If done in excess, you can achieve different textures with your extract such as honeycomb wax or crumble.

Harvest

The final stage of growing your cannabis crop where you will cut down the plants and begin to hang the branches for drying. Typically, growers want to harvest their plants right around the time that 50% of the plants trichomes are still a light milky-white colour, and 50% have started to darken in to a more sappy-amber color. When you harvest will impact the kind of high experienced when smoking the buds. Earlier harvests produce a lighter more creative high while later harvests lead to a stronger and more sleepy type of high.

Hash Oil

A similar term to “cannabis oil” (see above), which can most likely be eaten or smoked to take effect. Those with a higher tolerance to THC may opt to line their joints with a smearing of hash oil to achieve the desired results. Hash oil is one of many different forms of cannabis concentrate and is usually made through the use of isopropyl alcohol or butane as the solvent.

Hashish

Another term acquired from the middle east which refers to the hand-rubbed method of getting the trichomes off the cannabis flowers. Usually rolled into small balls that appear to be varying tones of dark green, brown, or black. Alternatively called hash, resin, rub, or charas, this material is one of the most basic solventless extracts out there.

Haze

A popular class of cannabis sativa strains the grow quite tall and are known for producing huge yields. A few examples of popular Haze hybrids are Super Silver Haze, Amnesia Haze, Lemon Haze, and Critical Haze.

HCFSE

High Cannabinoid Full Spectrum Extract. This is considered to be a very high-quality product and typically takes shape at room temperature in a crystalline form. Appropriately named as THCA diamonds, because of the appearance and also the inherent value from the high production cost. Properly made HCFSE extracts must be de-waxed and purged before ready for consumption.

HCTFSE

High Cannabinoid High Terpene Full Spectrum Extract. As the name clearly spells out, this is another highly refined process that contains terpenes and cannabinoids. They are processed in a similar way as HCFSE extracts, but instead of separating the more oily terpene layer from the more viscous cannabinoid layer, they leave all components together for a more well-rounded product.

Head Stash

This is a term used to describe the best of the best cannabis strains available from a particular dealer or shop. The head stash will be their premier flower choice and also most likely the priciest option on the menu. Head stash status may be achieved through careful growing practices, optimal fertilizer mixes, seeds with premium genetics, and also excellent curing of the product.

Heirloom Variety

These could also be called the “OG strains”, meaning the old school varieties of cannabis that haven’t lost their true nature to hybridization. Many foreign landrace strains like Thai sativa, Columbian gold, and Mexican Red are all good examples of Heirloom strains, which have kept their value to seed collectors and cannabis growers across North America.

Hemp

This is a classification of cannabis plant that is specifically higher in CBD and lower in THC. Most scientists agree that hemp is a derivative sub-species of cannabis sativa, because of its similar morphology and growth cycle. Hemp, by definition, can have no higher than 0.3% THC. Cannabis is grown for medicinal and recreational purposes. Hemp can be sometimes grown for extracting CBD, but also has many industrial uses such as hemp paper, biofuels, hempcrete, and more.

Hermaphrodite

This phenomenon can happen in a variety of organisms but is especially problematic for cannabis growers. Hermaphrodites display sexual organs of both male and female. In the scope of a grow room that is focused on growing high quality female buds, one hermaphrodite could pollinate the entire room and ruin the value of the entire crop. It may also happen that only a portion of the plant turns ‘hermie’, rather than the entire plant, and this can be due to stress cause by physical harm, over/under watering, or interruptions to the light cycle. Hermaphrodites should be removed and destroyed as soon as they are spotted.

HID

High Intensity Discharge lights are the large industrial bulbs you typically see in overhead warehouse lighting. These lamps function via an electric arc between two tungsten electrodes that are placed in a. Sealed glass chamber with xenon gas. These bulbs can provide a high level of light over a large area and match fairly well with the natural wavelengths of the sun.

High CBD

refers to products or strains of cannabis that are high in the Cannabidiol cannabinoid. Cannabis flower is typically labelled as “high-CBD” if the contents have 4% CBD or higher.

High THC

Refers to products or strains of cannabis that are high in Tetrahydrocannabidiol. High THC strains today can range from 15-30% THC, but anything over 20% THC is typically described as very high.

High Yielding

A strain that is expected to develop a large harvest of dried flower. High-yield crops are those that will produce the most output per square foot of dedicated growing space. Top producing strains like Super Skunk, Super Silver Haze, and Northern Lights can give a yield of anywhere from 5 ounces to 12 ounces per plant, depending on the grower’s experience.

HPS

High Pressure Sodium lights are a classic option for cannabis growers dating back many years. They are rather energy efficient and give off a good ambient heat for the grow room. When used in combination with a reflective shield, they provide a nice steady warm-yellow light that vegging plants enjoy.

HTFSE

High Terpene Full Spectrum Extract will not be as rich in the cannabinoids, but definitely have the full spectrum of terpenes from the original plant. These extracts will be first-class in terms of taste and may take on a more liquid texture when compared to HCFSE. Expect this kind of extract when you see terp sauce advertised at a dispensary or online.

Humulene

This is a terpene that gives a woody, spicy, and herbal scent and flavor. It is present in hops, cloves, and even basil and you may pick up on its subtle flavors in cannabis strains like Liberty Haze, Girl Scout Cookies, and Sour Diesel.

Hybrid

A term from genetics representing the mixture, or crossing, or two different parental strains to create something new and biologically unique. Clones of the same hybrid will be genetically identical, but a handful of hybrid seeds of the same strain may have all alight variances in their genetic makeup.

Hydrofluorocarbon Extraction

This is a low-pressure cannabinoid isolation technique using a variety of non-toxic gases. This is a low, multi-step process that has lower risk and is also able to achieve a top-quality final product free of any residual contaminants such as pesticides.

Hydroponics

Describes the cultivation of cannabis plants in water without the need for soil. Other mediums are typically used to give the roots something to bind to such as rockwool, clay pellets, coco chips, perlite, or even lava rocks. Ultimately it is the watering and nutrient feeding schedule that will set the experts apart from the beginners. Hydro growing is a great way to achieve top quality flowers from seeds grown indoors. Doing away with soil helps to eliminate most, but not all, of the potential bugs and pests that can infiltrate indoor crops.

I

Ice water extraction

A solventless method of making extracts where cannabis is mixed into an ice-water bath and stirred, typically with a wooden spoon. The trichomes once disturbed will fall off the leaves and buds, sinking to the bottom of the bowl. Once all the water is evaporated, this kief-life product can be made into ice wax or bubble hash.

Ice Wax

This cannabis concentrate has a wax-like consistency and is made using the ice water extraction technique.

Indica

Cannabis indica strains are the direct descendants of the marijuana strains that grew in cooler northern climates such as the HinduKush mountains and the Himalayas. They are typically characterized as being small and bushy, with broad leaves that catch maximal sunlight with the shorter summer days of the northern hemisphere. When smoked, indica strains are said to provide a more calming high, sometimes even sedating, due to the high myrcene content. Indica flower typically has a skunky, musky, or hash-like flavor and gives the user a more body-centered high. Great for growing indoors and produce a high yield with a flowering time of roughly 8 to 10 weeks.

Indoor

Refers to seeds that are to be grown indoors, or fresh cannabis bud that came from an indoor grow. Indoor growing has the advantage of steady climate control, and a sealed space to help with pest control. Indoor growers need to be aware of the responsibility they hold to keep the room well ventilated and at the proper humidity. Lighting is also something to consider that will add up as an extra cost when you choose to grow indoor cannabis.

IPM

Integrated Pest Management is the collection of tools and strategies that a cannabis grower plans to use in order to deter insets and other pests from invading the crop. These tools can involve things like yellow sticky traps, predatory bugs, natural insecticides, and physical plant inspections. Having an IPM plan in place is critical to ensure the protection of your crop and make sure you can recoup the investment you have made in growing it.

Isopropyl Alcohol

Commonly known as rubbing alcohol, this substance is available at most drug stores and pharmacies at varying percentages between 50% and 99% purity. This is one of the most accessible solvents that can be used to remove THC and other cannabinoids from the plant’s buds and leaves. Although simple to execute, this solvent can be hard to get fully purged, and therefore your Iso-derived extracts may hold a lingering alcohol taste.

J

Joint

The classic short hand form of saying marijuana cigarette. The joint is one of the most classic ways to consume the dried bud. Joints can be rolled small (a pinner), or they can be rolled very large (king sized, blunt, bat, cone). When cut with tobacco, this is usually referred to as a spliff. Many other names exist for the joint, such as when you get one pre-made or make one for yourself ahead of time. This is called the pre-roll (preroll, pre-rolled, PR).

Joint Rollers

This is a small accessory is made for those who struggle to roll their own joints. Some models may be automated, but the simplest designs are operated by hand, using two plastic rollers and soft later of fabric where the dried herb is to be sprinkled. Joint rollers make it easier to get a nice straight uniform dooby without tearing the paper.

Juvenile

Describes the early stages of the cannabis plant as it wraps up the seedling stage and becomes a young vegetating plant.Juvenile plants have not yet reached sexual maturity, so it will be essentially impossible for growers to determine which plants are male and which are female at this stage.

K

Kief

This is the most likely form of cannabis concentrate available out there, as it is simply the crystallized trichomes that have fallen off the plant. Similar to how dry-sift is obtained by shaking buds through a screened bag, kief is also often found in the bottom of your grinder or left covering your rolling tray. Kief has a higher THC content than the raw bud alone, somewhere near 50% and can be smoked in a joint, pipe, or bong. It can even be pressed or further manipulated to make other more refined concentrates like hash, shatter, oil or rosin.

Kush

A popular lineage of indica strains descending from the HinduKush mountain range that extends through Afghanistan and Pakistan. Kush plants typically on the shorter side and have distinctive broad, dark-green leaves. The smoke from a Kush plant’s flowers provides a strong dose of relaxation, and popularly used for sleep issues, anxiety, and chronic pain. Hundreds of popular Kush strains have been created through hybridization, but some of the original classic Kush strains include Hindu Kush, Purple Kush, OG Kush, Master Kush, and Afghani Kush.

L

Landrace

Similar in nature to the term ‘heirloom strain’, landrace describes a strain of marijuana that has not been cross=bred and still has a genotype similar to that which occurred from natural evolution. For example, a strain like Lamb’s bread (from Jamaica) or Panama Red (Central America), should be very similar to the way it was 10 or even 20 years ago, since it is the original smoke and flavor that connoisseurs and collectors are interested in.

Leaf

The leaf is the energy-producing centre of the cannabis plant, where photosynthesis turns photons from the sun’s light into a form of energy the plant can use. Structured similarly to most other plant leaves, the cannabis leaf has a stem, veins, blades, and small openings call stomata which is essentially a pore that regulates the rate of gas exchange. Young marijuana leaves may only have 3 or 5 fingers, but the mature plant produces mainly 7-pointed leaves. Growers may rarely see 9, 11, or even 13 pointed-leaves, but this is very rare. Sativa plant leaves will be thin and widespread, while indica flowers are broader with wide fingers.

LED

Light Emitting Diodes are a form of light that consume less energy than most other bulbs and also require much less energy to run. They will not produce the same high output of lumens that HIS or HPS lights provide, but their benefit is the reduced energy cost, ease of setup, and affordable purchase price. LED lighting also gives the grower the advantage of adjusting the spectrum of light for different parts of the growing cycle, for example edging more on the side of blue-light for vegetative growth and red-light for the flowering stage.

Legalization

The process of passing laws to make cannabis legal (either medically or recreationally). In the USA, legalization is a slow process that is happening state by state, beginning with California which legalized Medical Marijuana in 1996 with proposition 215. Not until 2012 did Colorado and Washington become the first states to legalize recreational weed in 2012.

Limonene

This terpene has a recognizable flavor reminiscent of lemon and lime. Present in citrus fruits and strains like Sour Diesel, OG Kush, and Super Lemon Haze, Limonene adds an enjoyable sour twist for your palette. It shouldn’t be too much of a surprise that this terpene helps to elevate the mood as it is present in many sativa strains. In addition, limonene is anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and can also help reduce symptoms of acid reflux

Linalool

Another naturally occurring terpene in cannabis and many other herbs and flowers, such as lavender, mint, and basil. Linalool has a relaxing quality that is great for relieving stress and anxiety and can also be used to moderate other mood disorders like depression. Strains of cannabis that are likely to be high in linalool content include Special Kush, Amnesia Haze, and OG Shark, just to name a few.

Lipids

Refer to the fats that are within the cannabis plant. Plants use lipids as a way to store energy, much the same way that humans and other mammals do. Lipids are great for the plant while it is growing, but if you end up with lipids still present in your cannabis oil or concentrate, this will be seen as a contaminant, as it makes the product murky and unstable. For this reason, the processes of de-waxing and winterization have been developed to completely eliminate the plant lipids from cannabis extracts during the manufacturing process.

Live Resin

A top-tier cannabis extract product, live-resin has an extremely high level of terpenes retain which translates to incredible taste and smell. Because the terpenes are fat-soluble solvents, the consistency of live resin is rather oily, and likes to be kept in a cool temperature like the fridge. To preserve the terpenes during extraction, live-resin requires the plants to be flash-frozen as soon as they are harvested, and then processing is all done in a cooler room as well. Live resin is best enjoyed on a dab rig or handheld vaporizer but can also be used by some to top off their joints for a high-THC flavor punch.

Lollipopping

This is a pruning technique aimed at removing all of the lower growth that doesn’t received adequate sunlight and focusing energy on the growth up top. As defoliation continues through the growth cycle, each major branch starts to take on a lollipop appearance with a large bud developing at the tip with not a lot of branching out lower beneath the canopy.

Lumens

Short for ‘luminous flux’, this represents the units of measurement for how much visible light that is emitted at a given time by a particular light source. Lumens will decrease as you get further away from the light bulb, which is why each type of grow light comes with a recommended distance you should keep from the canopy of your plants. Grow rooms can be analyzed in terms of how many lumens are available per square foot, or alternatively you can assess how many lumens per Watt are achieved to compare the energy efficiency of the chosen lights. Standard incandescent light bulbs can produce around 15 lumens, while industrial LED panels and HPS lights can produce over 100,000 lumens.

M

Macronutrient

Describes the major environmental nutrients required by the cannabis plan in order to grow and thrive. Macro means large, implying that these nutrients are needed in larger amounts. N-P-K are the 3 major dietary nutrients(Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium) which are acquired from the surrounding soil and added fertilizers. Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulfur are also needed in substantial amounts. Some may consider, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen to be macronutrients as well as these are basic building blocks for life, and they are acquired from the plants surrounding environment as well.

Male

The male cannabis plant is easily identified by a pair of balls (pollen sacs) shapedthat develops between 3 to 4 weeks after germination. Unless you plan to grow seeds rather than high-quality buds for smoking, males are going to be more trouble than what they are worth.

They should be identified and removed from the growing space immediately to prevent pollination of the female plants. Male plants contain far less THC and are not as valuable. Regular seeds may contain up to 50% makes, whereas buying feminized seeds ensures that a grower does not need to check for pesky males, although females can still flip genders when put through stressful environmental changes.

Manifolding

Can also be called “main-lining” the cannabis plants, and is a low-stress training technique that involves topping the plant twice before it enters the flowering stage. This creates a manifold of increased bud sites upon which the plant can grow out many large colas rather than one large central dominant bud. Because of the increased stress levels caused to the plant, manifolding can add one to two weeks on to your overall growing time,

Marijuana

This term basically covers the wide array of products derived from the cannabis plant. The word comes from ‘Marihuana’ which was used recreationally by many of the Mexicans who immigrated after the 1910 Revolution. In today’s language, many people use Marijuana to refer to the high-THC varieties of Cannabis, while the word Hemp describes the very low THC varieties (less than 0.3%)

Marinol

A pharmaceutical drug which is a synthetic version of THC. It was approved by the FDA foruse against chemo-induced nausea in cancer patients and also used for some eating disorders as a prescribed appetite stimulant. Marinol may also be sold under the alternative commercial names of Dronabinol or Syndros, Side effects for Marinol use are similar to those associated with cannabis use: dizziness, drowsiness, feeling “high”. Some unwanted effects of the medication include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Mary Jane

One of the many slang term used to describe marijuana. The history on how this term came into existence is a little foggy. Also sometimes written in the English language as Merry Jane, Maryjane, or simply MJ, the term may have even been passed down through Spanish slang (Maria) or French (Marie Jeanne)

Medicinal Cannabis

Medicinal or medical cannabis can be interpreted a number of ways, but ultimately this represents cannabis products that are used to treat the symptoms of a particular ailment rather than being smoked just for fun (i.e., recreational). Typically states that have legalized medicinal marijuana, but not recreational, will require a doctor’s note or prescription to legitimize their possession of it. Medical marijuana products can also mean those which have CBD only, and no psychoactive THC.

Medicinal License

This document will be issued at the state level after an individual or company has successfully met the criteria for being an authorized grower or retailer of marijuana products. Regulations must be followed, decided by the state, in order to maintain the medical license, and costly fines can be associated if any of those terms are broken. Depending on the state in which you live and the scale at which you want to operate, it can cost anywhere from $250 to over $20,000 to set up a medicinal licence to grow.

Medium

Refers to the potting material used to grow your marijuana plants. Hydroponic growers have the choice of using rockwool, clay pellets, river rocks, perlite, vermiculite, among others. Soil growers will still often blend their own custom medium with potting soil, compost, vermiculite, coco fiber or other substrates for the sake of improving nutrients and drainage.

Microbe

Any bacteria or other single-celled organisms that are found within the soil. As with human health, microbes are not at all a bad thing – in fact they are necessary. Microbes work symbiotically with the plant’s roots to improve nutrient uptake and also help to breakdown and make certain nutrients more available. What this means as a bottom line for growers is healthier plants and therefore a greater overall yield.

Micronutrient

Required in lesser amounts than the macronutrients, micronutrients are still important for keeping the biological processes in marijuana plants flowing smoothly. Some examples of plant micronutrients include Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, and Zinc. If any of these elements are out of balance (too little or too much), growers may see evidence of symptoms in their plants such as droopy leaves, yellowing color, leaf burn, or unusual spots or other markings.

Moonrocks

Occasionally referred to also as Sun-rocks, Moon rocks are a fun cannabis concentrate to purchase or make all on your own. Premium dried buds are coated with a sticky layer of cannabis oil (honey oil or distillate) and then sprinkled with kief (aka crystal or dry-sift). You end with a very unique high-THC product that is far too messy to put through a weed grinder, but best enjoyed slowly burning in a pipe or a bong.

Myrcene

Classically understood as the “sleepy” terpene, Myrcene has a skunky, pungent, and earthy flavor. This terpene is actually naturally found in mangoes, which many weed enthusiast can actually help increase your high if you eat some just prior. Cannabis strains with over 0.5% myrcene are typically classified as indica while those strains with less than 0.5% are going to give a more uplifting sativa high. Strains high in myrcene include OG Kush, Grape Ape, and Granddaddy Purple.

N

Nail

The device inserted into the tip of your dab rig which is heated with a torch in preparation for a dab. The nail is typically made of glass, ceramic, or titanium and takes the place of a quartz banger, which is shaped more like a bowl. Some nails will come with an accompanying hood, shield, or cap to prevent the smoke from escaping before it can be inhaled through the mouthpiece.

Nectar Collector

This dabbing apparatus is a handheld alternative to using a rig to smoke your concentrates. Typically made of glass, the nectar collector will have a long detachable tip at the end analogous to the beak of a hummingbird. The user heats the titanium tip in the same way as a nail, and then it gets touched down on a small sample of cannabis extract, directly from a glass or silicone tray. The nectar collector may have many different models and designs, much like a bong, and often comes apart into 3 (or more) pieces for easy transportation. Known also as the vertical vaporizer or ‘dab straw’ these devices are extremely convenient and also easy to clean.

Nug Run

Describes the material used to make a higher-quality cannabis concentrate. In this method, only trimmed cannabis flowers (nugs) are used as the starting material, as opposed to using lower grade trim or shake. Nug run products will fetch top dollar on the market, since the higher-grade materials come through in the final product. Trim run shatters and waxes will often lack potency and appear darker in color.

O

Ocimene

This is a terpene molecule that gives cannabis strains like Green Crack, Sour Diesel, and Strawberry Cough a sweet, herbal, and woody flavor. Also found in the plant kingdom within mint, parsley, and orchids, ocimene is both an antiviral and antifungal substance. Some recent studies also show that ocimene may be effective in combatting inflammation and symptoms of diabetes.

OG

Many believe the term stands for ‘Original Gangster’, but in fact more accurately this represents ‘Ocean Grown’ referring to the region of Southern California that produces so much of the countries top-notch cannabis. The name OG may appear in many strains which tells you that it either came from this legendary growing mecca, or at least has some genetics roots with OG Kush being crossed into the mix at some point in its history.

Oil

Can represent a variety of cannabis concentrates including those which are smoked (cherry oil, honey oil, distillate oil), eaten (CBD oil, hemp oil, Rick Simpson oil) or applied topically (i.e., massage oils). Because the cannabinoids THC and CBD are oil-soluble and not water-soluble, many concentrates and other personal products are going to be oil-based in nature.

Oil Rig

See “dab rig” above.

Open Blast

This is the opposite of a closed-loop system for cannabinoid extraction and is much more dangerous. Solvents like butane and propane are exposed to the open air, and of course if ever met with an ignition source this could cause a real blast or explosion. Open-blast extraction is typically done only by new beginners who lack the proper equipment and knowledge. The final product is going to be a lower quality as well, because the absence of a vacuum-purging step to remove 100% of the solvent.

Ounce

This measurement of weight is the most commonly sectioned unit of selling cannabis in bulk. An ounce is equal to 28 grams, and there are also 16 ounces in a pound of marijuana. Although it can vary with the strain, an ounce of well-trimmed and cured cannabis should fit nicely into a sandwich sized zip-bag. Prices for an ounce of flower in the United states can range from under $200 to over $500 depending on where and what you buy. May also be called an “O”, “ozzie”, or “zone”.

Outdoor

Refers to seeds that are to be grown outdoors, or fresh cannabis bud that came from an outdoor grow. Outdoor weed may also sometimes be referred to as ‘sun-grown’ which also encompasses those outdoor growers who use a greenhouse to assist with climate control. Outdoor gives you the advantage of having more space and also helps to remove the cost of artificial lighting that indoor requires.

P

Pen Batteries

Also referred to as vape batteries, these are typically re-chargeable lithium-ion batteries. These tend to put out 3.7 volts in order to power the atomizer that heats and vaporizes the cannabis oil in your cartridge. To retain the maximal life span, batteries should be stored in a cool dark place away from direct sunlight.

Pesticide

Chemical additives that are sometimes used on cannabis in order to remove or destroy insect pests and preserve the value of the crop. Pesticides are very harmful to human health, and are also hard to remove from porous surfaces, like the buds from a cannabis plant. For this reason, growers should first attempt natural pest management techniques and only when that fails should they resort to natural and organic-based pesticide options.

Pheno Hunt

This is when growers plant out a number of seeds from the same strain and hunt out their ideal characteristics. This could be the tallest plant, the most branches, or the fastest flowering times. When developing new strains, a thorough pheno hunt is critical to ensure you are passing on the most successful genetic traits from each make and female plant.

Phenotype

Whereas genotype refers to each cannabis plant’s inner blueprints, the phenotype represents what is actually built. All of the traits of a plant’s physical appearance (height, yield, color, aroma, leaf shape, etc.) all a part of its phenotype. Each individual seed and plant will develop its own unique phenotype, based on which genes it inherits from mother/father and which genes are dominant/recessive.

PHO

Propane Hash Oil is made exactly the same way as BHO (see above), but with the use of propane instead of butane for the solvent. Propane has a lower boiling point, which makes it easier to purge and more likely that you retain the original spectrum of terpenes. PHO may tend to take on a more buddery texture whereas BHO may be more likely to get you a shatter-like consistency.

Phoenix Tears

Simply put, this is a marketing term for the concentrated cannabis oil that is prepared for edible or smoking use. Also known by the same Rick Simpson Oil, this substance was first used topically to heal skin cancers. There are now versions of phoenix tears that are high in CBD and good for reducing seizures (even in pets and children). There are also high THC varieties more targeted towards shrinking tumor grown and also ingesting for pain.

Photoperiod

This word refers to the period of daylight than an organism receives in a 24-hour span. Most standardized weed seeds (with the exception of auto-flower strains) require a change in photoperiod in order to trigger the events that promote flower production. Vegetative plants can do well on an 18/6 cycle or even up to 22/2 but require a drop to 12/12 in order for flowering to begin. Once plants are receiving 12 hours of dark every day, they redirect less energy towards growth and more towards reproduction (i.e., making buds)

Pinene

This is the terpene that provide the classic woody aroma to cannabis and many other plants, most of which of course is the pine tree. The earthy, herbal, sometimes spicy flavours of pinene can be appreciated in strains like Blue Dream, Critical Mass, and Harlequin. Pinene seems to promote alertness, reduce inflammation, and is a bronchodilator.

Pinner

Refers to a small joint, ideal for someone who has a low tolerance or just doesn’t want to get overly baked or high. A pinner doobie will typically contain no more than 0.25 to 0.33 of a gram and won’t stretch too far if you are planning to share your session with another smoker.

Pipe

Any device used to contain and burn your cannabis while you inhale from the other end. The design can vary greatly but will typically contain 3 kay components – the bowl, the choke, and the mouthpiece. Consumers can find pipes online from any number of materials, including wood, stone, quartz, glass, steel, or ceramic. Pipes can be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol or other solvents and provide the consumer with years of use and no need to buy rolling papers. The downside of smoking from a pipe is that they do get dirty quickly and have a higher temperature toke than what you may get from a joint or water bubbler.

Pistil

Also sometimes called pistillate. The female reproductive part of the flower that lies within the developing bud to collect male pollen and deliver it to the ovary. Long tendrils called stigmas project out from the pistil which have a sticky tip for attracting pollen, these are the tiny white hairs that you often see emerging from cannabis buds. Pollen is then delivered from the stigma down the stalk (style) into the pistil where it is received.

PM

Stands for Powdery Mildew, which is a fungal disease that is very contagious in a marijuana growing facility (whether indoor or outdoor). PM can be introduced into a group of plants from an outside source, but also naturally develops in areas with high humidity or poor air circulation and filtration. Some natural remedies exist such as the use of sprays made with baking soda, liquid soap, mouthwash, or organic fungicides. In most cases, infected plants need to be removed or destroyed to prevent the outbreak from spreading.

Pollen

the gametes (reproductive cells) from male cannabis plants, analogous to sperm. Pollen can travel long distances through the air before it reaches the female pistils to initiate the reproductive cycle of seed production. One male plant can produce a massive amount of pollen, capable of fertilizing an entire field of female cannabis plants with just a gust of wind. Pollen can be stored for long term use when fully dried and frozen.

Post Harvest

Includes all of the post-growing production that happens with cannabis before it hits the market for sale. This could involve drying and trimming, cannabinoid testing, creating extracts, and packaging.

Pot

Slang term to refer to the cannabis or marijuana plant. This has nothing to do with a kitchen pot but is rather a shortened form of the Spanish term potación de guaya, which is an ancient recipe for cannabis-infused wine or brandy. In translation, this was shortened to potaguaya or potiguaya, and then of course to simply ‘pot’.

Pot Brownies

Also called magic brownies, these would be the same recipe as what your mother or grandmother used to make, except they are laced with THC. Some cannabis chefs make their brownies with cannabis-infused butter that was made in a slow cooker, or they can be made using decarboxylated bud, trim or kief. Start with just a small piece, and remember the more times you go back for more brownie may get you one bite closer to greening-out.

Pre-Rolls

See “joint” above. Pre-rolled joints are those that have been rolled ahead of time before an outing or have been rolled by someone else and purchased online or at a retail dispensary. Pre-rolls are typically weighed to ensure consistent packaging and should be labelled with the strain and other important metrics such as THC% and CBD%.

Propagation

A method of artificially reproducing and spreading a plant species. Propagating cannabis involves taking cutting, or clones, and snipping the leaves to encourage immediate root developments. Once the cuttings take root, they can be transplanted to some growth medium and propagate hundreds of genetic copies of the same mother plant.

Pull and Snap

This cannabis concentrate, like many others, acquired its name through the look and texture it has. Much like silly putty or magic slime, the extract will be stretch when you apply warmth from your fingers or move it slowly, but when you go to break a piece off quickly it should still snap off in a clean line. This cannabis concentrate is a half-way marker between shatter (completely solid) and wax (runny and viscous) and can be consumed on a dab rig or in a vape pen.

Purge

The final step of concentrate production where all the residual solvent is removed through heat or pressure. For the cleanest outcome, purging is done in a vacuum-sealed environment. It is important to remove all of the solvent used (whether alcohol or butane) because if left behind they can have an adverse effect on the consumers health. Improperly purged extracts will not look or taste quite right and may cause coughing, headaches, and other unwanted side effects.

Q

Quality Control

An important division of any cannabis-related business whether growing, extracting, or in retail sales. Companies must take responsibility to ensure the overall safe quality of their products. Dried flower, edibles, and extracts all must be adequately tested for things like residual solvents, pesticides, or other contaminants like mold or bacteria. Quality control sometimes involves sending products our for lab testing or developing your own in-house laboratory for regular analysis.

Quarter

a measurement of weight, referring to a quarter of an ounce – or 7 grams. Dispensaries may sell strains of marijuana flower by the quarter ounce, at a better price than buying two eighths separately. May also be rereferred to by some as quad or QT.

Quartz Banger

This is the portion of a dab rig that is heated with a torch in preparation for a dab to be applied and vaporized at high temperature. Quartz is an extremely effective heat sync and can be brought to red hot temperatures without breaking or cracking. Quartz bangers are available in many different sizes (10mm, 14mm, 16mm, etc.) with male and female fittings to fit the different bongs and rigs out there. See also “banger” above.

QWISO

A very basic form of cannabis extraction standing for Quick Wash Isopropyl, which uses iso as the primary solvent. This is a fast method of isolating trichomes, helped also by the fact that isopropyl alcohol evaporates quite rapidly at room temperature.

R

Reclaim

Refers to the collected resin on the sides of your banger or along the inside walls of your dab rig. Reclaim may be old, or recycled, dabs but still carries a high THC content with less of the original terpenes. Dabbing with reclaim will therefore me a less tasty experience than using fresh extracts but will still get the user high. Because the reclaim has already been subjected to heat (decarboxylated), you have the option to place the reclaim in capsules or use in edible recipes as it is ready for ingestion.

Recreational

Any use of cannabis products for non-medicinal purposes. Cannabis is used by many Americans simply for the pure enjoyment of it, much like a glass of wine after dinner. Cannabis is a common addition at many adult gatherings, and also used by individuals recreationally for relaxation or creative inspiration. Recreational cannabis was first legalized in Colorado and Washington back in 2012 and more states are following suit going forward.

Refillable Cartridges

Cannabis vaporizer pens will either come with cartridges that are disposable or refillable. Re-fillable cartridges can usually be refilled by the consumer themselves, but those who have trouble may wish to bring their unit back to the point of purchase with assistance. Some cartridges may be refillable with shatter or wax, but most models will contain only a small opening for you to inject some highly viscous distillate oil, or other high-THC e-juice.

Reefer

A slang term which means the same as joint. Perhaps the term evolved from the Spanish work for marijuana which is ‘grifa’. Some sources believe the word descended from sailing terminology from sailing where ‘reefing’ the sail means rolling it up from the bottom, similar to the way you roll a joint. Reefer Madness, a 1930’s film portraying marijuana as a dangerous and powerful drug, popularized the term in attempts to steer members of society away from ever using the substance.

Refinement

The final stages of producing cannabis extracts which directly follows purging. Some concentrates are refined through sitting in raised temperatures or sub-zero temperatures. Or placed through subsequent filtration rounds to remove specific cannabinoids. Refinement is much like the way fine wine and cheese needs to be cured for a period following manufacturing.

Regular/ Unsexed

This blanked term represents all standard cannabis seeds that are not coming from a feminized plant. Regular and unsexed seeds are simply coming to you the way nature intended them, with a roughly 50% proportion of male and female plants. Regular seeds can be a risky investment for marijuana growers, since just one male can pollinate an entire grow room quite easily. However, having both males and females is necessary for producing large scale seeds for wholesale production, as well as developing new hybrid strains.

Residual Solvent

This would be any leftover chemical compounds left in shatter or other extracts as a result of incomplete purging. When small amounts of solvent are left in the final product, it can be dangerous for the consumers health and just generally an unpleasant smoking experience that will not encourage your customers to come back for more. When residual solvent is detected, you must re-purge the extracts in question to ensure they meet minimum health standards.

Resin

A slang term for the sticky sap like texture that is left behind when handling cannabis trichomes. Resin can collect in your grinder or on the tips of your fingers when you roll a joint. Resin is also what collects on the edge of your pipe when partially burned material remains coated on the surface of the glass. Resin cannot be cleaned off with water but requires the action of a solvent such as isopropyl alcohol or citrus oils.

Rick Simpson Oil

A specific preparation of cannabis oil extract popularized by the Canadian cancer survivor Rick Simpson. In 2003, Rick began to publicly demonstrate how he was reversing the growth of his cancerous moles just using his homemade oil topically. He began selling his oil under the name ‘phoenix tears’ and it became popular across north America for treating a wide array of ailments from cancer and psoriasis to physical pain and seizures.

Rig

See “dab rig” above. Rig can also be used in reference to someone’s handheld vaporizer, for example “bring your rig to the beach so we can try the new crumble that I made.”

Roach

Can refer to the filter of a joint itself, but more commonly represents the small leftover portion of a joint that becomes too hard to hold on to when a filter is not in place. Many cannabis consumers who smoke filter-less joints will have a roach clip that they can attach, and the marijuana cigarette gets shorter in order to hold more easily with their hands. A roach joint would be born out of desperate measures when you run out of weed and have to mix together all of the small weed butts from out of your ash tray.

Rolling Papers

Any substance used to roll up some dried marijuana into a joint or spliff. Rolling papers are now available in hundreds of different varieties, including rice paper, raw unbleached paper, recycled hemp leaves, and plant cellulose. Packs are sold in sizes that range from single wide to 1 ¼ size or king sized. Many flavoured options exist as well, which can add an exciting twist to your smoking experience. In general, good things to look for in a rolling paper for cannabis is that they are not easy to tear, don’t contain any bleach or additives, and are slow burning.

Rolling Trays

A store-bought or home-made surface for someone to roll their joints on to prevent valuable cannabis crumbs from falling to the floor or blowing away on you. Using a rolling tray can substantially minimize waste and reduce the amount of clean up you have to do around your house.

Rosin

This solventless cannabis concentrate is made with a technique using only heat and pressure. Home weed enthusiasts can try this themselves by pressing a bud in a flat iron between 2 pieces of parchment paper. What emerges is a dark green sticky slime that is rich in both cannabinoids and terpenes. For industrial preparations, large presses have been engineered to squish cannabis flowers at a precisely controlled temperature, to get you the best clean and flavorful products for dabbing.

Ruderalis

A classification of cannabis seed that is a unique family apart from sativa and indica. Cannabis ruderalis developed in the cooler northern mountain climates, and in areas of northern Asia and Siberia where summer days are extremely long, and then in the winter the sun doesn’t shine for days on end. Because cannabis flowering is so dependent on light cycles, these plants learned the ability to produce flowers no matter what sun’s schedule is doing. When ruderalis (which is inherently low in THC) is mixed with another indica or sativa strain, the resulting hybrid is said to be an autoflowering plant, because the plants reach full maturity on their own after approximately 2 weeks, rather than requiring a precise 12/12 lighting cycle.

Runoff

This term describes the water that escapes from the bottom of your planters once the cannabis plant’s roots have absorbed all the water that they can. Growers must be aware that when feeding their plants with a mixed nutrient solution, runoff water can contain high levels of salts and other materials that can be corrosive or harmful in other ways to the environment. Be sure that your runoff water is properly drained and does not end up doing damage to the floor of your grow room or other nearby plants in your outdoor cannabis garden.

S

Sap

this is one of the more physically unstable varieties of cannabis extract as it has a high lipid and terpene content. This makes the product very tasty, but because of the runny nature it can be difficult when it comes to packaging and handling the product. Sap can be dabbed on a hot nail or smeared onto a rolling paper to enjoy on a blunt or joint.

Sativa

The broad classification of cannabis species that developed closer to the equatorial regions of the world. The sativa plant typically grows much taller than the indica family of plants and also has more thin and stretched out leaves. When smoking cannabis sativa, users typically claim to feel an uplifted sense of euphoria and general well-being. Sativa has become synonymous for the “active weed” whereas indica is sometimes better suited towards watching movies or relaxing at home. Sativa plants do well in hot sunny climates and are known more for their potent cerebral effects rather than a body high like you get from smoking indica.

Sauce

A slang term that can be used in reference to any high-terpene cannabis extract. Because terpenes are in a more un-stable liquid form, when in large quantities they give a resulting product that is runnier in nature, like a sauce. Also knows as ‘terp sauce’.

Schwag

This slang word describes low-quality cannabis that is one step above shake or trim. Schwag weed is the kind that you give to your friend rather than try to sell it to them, because you know that would just be ripping them off. This term is synonymous with ditchweed or skunkweed, and perhaps has a connection with ‘shag’ which can represent shredded tobacco.

ScrOG

The Screen Of Green Method requires the use of an additional net or screen that is placed over the plants early in vegetation so the grower can weave and train the new growth to branch out and create a shorter bushier plant. Usually, each plant will require a minimum of 2 feet squared in order optimize the lighting from above. When the grower keeps the lower branches well pruned, growth up top is more developed, and gets an even distribution from light sources above. Scrogging gives a more flat-topped plant structure than the typical Christmas tree shape that most cannabis strains take on naturally.

Seedling

Describes early cannabis plants after the germinated seeds emerge from the ground and start to develop the first sets of leaves

Sinsemilla

Derived from the Spanish term that translates to “without seed”. Sinsemilla describes the resin-covered female buds that are produced from a quality crop of feminized weed plants. Any cannabis plant that is not pollinated can produce sinsemilla, but the term is reserved for use when talking about particularlypotent ganja.

Shatter

One of the most popular forms of cannabis extracts available to consumers, and again is named after its look and consistency. Shatter is typically made through BHO extraction and then allowed to cool on a large cookie sheet in the form of a slab. When fully purged and cooled, the extract represents a sheet of glass that will literally shatter into smaller fragments when pressure is applied. Shatter has a lower terpene content than some other extracts but is also highly stable as a result. Most shatter will allow you to pinch off with your fingers and roll into a tiny dab without it ever sticking or destabilizing into oil. Smoke your shatter directly on a dab rig, in a vape or shatter pen, or sprinkle a few shatter balls into your joints.

Short-Path Distillation

This is a post-extraction refinement technique for cannabis concentrates that removes impurities or isolates certain cannabinoids. The design contains a heated vessel for the sample, and a short path to a second collection vessel there the impurities are to be collected.

Skunk

A popular family of sativa strains, beginning with the fine work of Sam the Skunkman out of Amsterdam in 1983. The strain he popularized, Skunk #1, was a customized hybrid of Columbian Gold x Afghani #1 x Acapulco Gold. The strain became a true legend when it took off as the world’s first ‘commercially available’ strain and won the cannabis cup in 1988. The true skunk is a 75% sativa / 25% indica hybrid that is easy to grow for beginner and novice growers.

Slab

Term used to describe the large sheet of BHO extract, or shatter, as it cools after production. The Cannabis extract is poured into a cookie sheet (usually lined with parchment paper) when it is still in the liquid state. Slabbing-out as it is termed, allows the product to cool faster and more evenly, while giving the impurities and air bubbles a chance to work their way out. A good quality slab of shatter will be a consistent light amber colour with no foreign particles.

SOG

Sea Of Green is an advanced pruning technique used to try to squeeze the most production value out of a small growing space. Using this method, cannabis plants are flipped to flowering early, after just 2-3 weeks. Because the plants will not get as large in this method, you can place them closer together (1 plant per square foot, up to 2 plants maximum). You will see large colas developing across the low flying plants that will develop a thick even canopy of easy-to-maintain plants, which appears like a sea of green.

Soilless

This refers to all of the varied growing techniques that do not require the use of soil. The soilless growing medium will be something inert such as coco-coir, perlite, vermiculite, or rock wool. These substrates must be conditioned before use so that they have the correct pH and are the right density to use in conjunction with a hydroponic system.

Solvent

This can be any chemical or natural substance that is used to strip the cannabis plant of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. Some examples of solvents used in the practice of cannabis extraction are butane, ethanol, propane, CO2, and isopropyl alcohol. Solvents are only present during manufacturing to help with the initial isolation. They must be completely removed through careful purging to ensure the final product is entirely solvent-free.

Solvent Recovery

In a closed-loop extraction system, solvents that are removed during purging can be recycled and used in successive batches. This feature may come as an added expenditure when first buying the equipment but is sure to save money over the long run when you look at the cost of buying fresh solvent every round.

Solventless

Any approach to creating cannabis extracts that does not involve the use of added solvents. Kief is a very simple example of a solventless extract, whereas creating Rosin and CO2 distillate require additional equipment or machinery to produce. Many of the different kinds of hash available on the market are also made through 100% solventless techniques.

Spider Mites

One of the more problematic insect pests that are encountered by cannabis growers. They are not true spiders, but rather part of the acari family and feast on the underside of plant leaves. Aside from their similar morphology to a spider, these mites also produce a silk-like web which can make them easier to spot. Natural ways to prevent spider mites from your plant include predatory mites, insecticidal soap, or neem oil diluted and sprayed on the plant’s leaves.

Spliff

This refers to a joint that is cut with part marijuana and part tobacco. This method of smoking seems to have taken off more in places like Europe and Australia, but there are still stoners in USA who like to add the occasional head rush that tobacco provides.

Stamen

This is the main reproductive organ of the male cannabis plant. The stamen holds up the filament and anther, which are where the plant releases its pollen. Stamen comes from the Latin word meaning ‘thread’, likely because of the thin thread-like appearance the stamen has in most plant species.

Stoned

Blanket statement to describe the sensation after consuming cannabis products. Some users feel more noticeably ‘stoned’ after smoking indica products. Rather that implying that you have been hit with a sack of stones, the feeling is described as being laze, sleepy, or even just deeply relaxed. Individuals who smoke cannabis concentrates will get stoned much more quickly because of the high cannabinoid content when compared the flower. This is also called being ‘baked’ or ‘high’.

Strain

This is the word that separates and identifies the thousands of different cannabis genotypes. The strain name may tell a story about the appearance of the buds (Big Bud, Granddaddy Purple), the aroma (Super Lemon Haze, Chocolope), or the effects (Gorilla Glue, Zombie OG). The strain name is almost always chosen by the breeder, and then parent strains are sometimes taken into account to help make it easier for consumers to identify (i.e., Trainwreck x Hawaiian = Pineapple Express)

Stretch

Cannabis seedlings may stretch when they are young in the light source is coming from too far away. This can lead to weak and spindly plants that to not produce very well. Another time the term comes up is during flowering, when plants (especially sativa) can display a second wind of growth spurt and stretch an additional 100% to 400% of its original size.

Sugar Leaf

These are small, often single-pointed, leaves which develop close to the flower and are high in trichomes, which gives the appearance of powdered sugar. When trimming the dried cannabis buds, many growers opt to leave the sugar leaves on, since they are still high in resin, and therefore lots of cannabinoids like CBD and THC. The sugar leaves serve only a secondary role in photosynthesis and develop more for defense against bugs and other pests.

Sun Grown

See “outdoor” above.

T

Taffy

Could describe an edible cannabis preparation made with cannabutter, brown sugar, corn syrup, and water. Alternatively, some dabbing connoisseurs use the word to describe an extract close in texture to taffy – such as rosin or snap and pull

Terp Sauce

See “sauce” above.

Terpene

A family of organic compounds that are found in abundance through the plant kingdom. There are over 120 known terpenes in the cannabis plant, which give each strain its unique aroma and flavor. We now know as well that each of the terpenes has a unique biological response, whether that is inducing drowsiness or wakefulness, stimulating the appetite, or reducing inflammation.

Thai Stick

A slang term for cannabis sativa strains coming out of Thailand in the 1960’s. Long sun-dried buds were stretched and wrapped around sticks and put into bundles for easier transporting. Classic Thai stick was a true landrace sativa and provided very energizing effects to the user. Soldier’s overseas experienced this potent weed during the Vietnam war and began to build the hype and demand for Thai sativa back in America. Elaborate preparations will involve the cured closer to be rolled, skewered on a bamboo stick, wrapped in dry fan leaves and tied together with a hemp string.

THC

Tetrahydrocannabidiol. The most predominant cannabinoid in the marijuana plant, and the one that most people are interested in because it has the psychedelic powers that get you high. THC has important uses in both the medical and recreational arenas and has a number of ways that it can be consumed (oral, smoking, vaping, rectally). THC therapy is used for everything from cancer treatment and depression to physical pain and insomnia.

CBD interacts primarily with the CB2 receptors and can be present in marijuana strains in levels anywhere from 0.3% to 10% or more. Taking CBD alongside THC may help to decrease the perceived high that a user feels. Medicinal benefits of CBD therapy reach far and wide, and it is legal for use across the United States, although in some states documentation from a Doctor is still required.

THCA

This is the natural precursor form of THC as it exists in the live plant. THCA is non-psychoactive and require applied heat in order to restructure itself into THC, the chemical that will actually get you high. This process of losing the extra carboxyl group is called decarboxylation.

Tincture

A method of suspension wherein the cannabinoids of interest (CBD, THC, or others) are extracted by, and held in, a solvent carrier such as oil or alcohol. Tinctures are to be taken orally or sublingually and can sometimes even be applied directly to the skin for topical applications. Alcohol tinctures will typically use ethanol or high-grade vodka or gin. Oil-based tinctures will use coconut oil (mct oil), olive oil, or avocado oil. A tincture may also be referred to as an infusion or elixir.

Top Shelf

see “Head Stash” above. Top shelf weed is the best cannabis available on the menu and will also come with the highest price tag.

Topicals

A category of retail cannabis products that are to be used strictly on the skin. These will often be made with organic, even food-safe ingredients but are meant for skin problems or acute breakouts of pain from arthritis or sore muscles. Different results can be achieved depending whether you choose CBD topicals or THC topicals, but both have a noticeable effect when you compare with placebo creams.

Topping

This low-stress training technique is geared at removing the top of the cannabis plant’s main stem when it Is still a seedling. This will force the plant to develop multiple colas rather than one large central bud.

Topping off

This explains the idea of adding some high potency cannabis extract, such as shatter or crumble, to a joint. You would simply grind up your bud, add to the rolling paper and then top off with a sprinkle of concentrates. Joints and blunts could also be topped-off with a few drips of oil or some CBD powder as well.

Torch

The accessory needed to heat your dab rig’s banger or nail. Most torches are refillable with either propane or butane, and the nice ones will have a click-button igniter eliminating the need for a lighter or matches. A good cannabis torch will also have an adjustable knob to control the flame as well as a child proof locking mechanism to ensure that you house doesn’t accidentally burn down.

Transdermal Patch

Working in a similar fashion to nicotine patches that were developed in the 1990’s, there are now patches on the market that contain a specific dose of THC o CBD that are absorbed transdermally (through the skin). THC and CBD patches are best used for slow-release treatment on localized pains, such as sore muscles or menstrual cramps.

Tray

See “Rolling Tray” above.

Trichome

The tiny resin-filled protrusions that lie on the surface of cannabis buds and leaves and contain a majority of the plant’s cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. These sticky glands have a 2-fold design to trap small insects and prevent them from causing further plant damage as well as trapping pollen grains to increase the chances of successful pollination. Assessing the trichomes can be a perfect way for a cannabis cultivator to determine if the crop is ready for harvest. Early trichomes are very clear, and almost a milk-white. They progress through a golden amber phase and then proceed to turn a dark rusty color, at which point the harvest will be too late and the buds may lose some potency.

Trim

All of the cut-off fan leaves and sugar leaves, even small stems, that are removed after drying are collectively called trim. These portions of the plant are not much good for smoking on their own, but because they do still carry a valuable number of cannabinoids, trim is an excellent precursor to making some extracts and edibles. Cannabis concentrates made from the trim run will not be quite as potent or awesome tasting as those from the nug run.

Trim Run

When leftover cannabis trim material is used to create cannabis concentrates such as oil, wax or shatter. Trim run will have a slightly inferior taste and potency but is still a valuable use of waste products and can still get people high at a lower cost. Trim run extracts should still be free of solvents and safe for consumption, they just won’t be of the same quality as nug run extracts because the starting concentration of THC just isn’t as high.

V

Vacuum Oven

A helpful tool for evaporating the residual solvent left behind when making cannabis concentrates. The vacuum ensures no foreign material enters during this refining process and also expediates the purging process. The oven removes moisture, volatile chemicals like butane and propane, and any other impurities that users should not consume.

Vape Oil

Refers to a cannabis oil preparation that is safe for use in handheld vaporizers and refillable vape cartridges. Cannabis oil on its own is quick thick and viscous, making it difficult to transfer from one receptacle to another. Most vape oil is made by thinning out the pure cannabis oil or distillate with a small amount of glycol or vegetable glycerine, which makes it the perfect consistency for flowing through the cartridge and over the element where it gets heated.

Vape Pen

A handheld vaporizing unit that is conveniently shaped in the form of a pen. These devices often with a batter that is fully rechargeable, and an oil cartridge that may or may not be re-fillable. Some vape pens have a more flexible atomizing chamber which also lets you put dried flower or extracts like wax or shatter inside for vaping.

Vapor

Different than smoke, this is the resulting gas provided by vaporization. Cannabis is vaporized at a lower temperature than that of pure combustion, which is what happens when you burn your pipe bowl or joint with an open flame.

Vaporizer

The tool or device used by a marijuana consumer in order to vaporize their cannabis flower or extracts. Vaporizer can either be of the desktop variety or handheld models. Most of the latter are electronic based, meaning that you don’t have to deal with any open heat sources. Many people believe that vaporizers provide a safer approach to cannabis consumption since combustion releases toxic smoke, whereas vapor is much less harmful to the lungs. Vaporizers come in many shapes and sizes and are available at several different price points depending on the functions and features that you are looking for.

Vaporizing

This is arguably the best way to consume cannabis if you want a strong effect that comes on quickly. By vaporizing and a low temperature of 325 – 350 degrees Fahrenheit, you get a cool gentle toke that is less intense on the mind and carries the subtle flavors of heat-sensitive terpenes. If you turn your vaporizer up to the 400 to 430 degree range, you will get much more of the full value of the THC off the bud, but at a cost of losing some flavor and taking on a hotter vapor

Vegetation

The vegetative phase of the cannabis life cycle is where most of the plant’s physical growth takes place, after the seedling stage and before flowering. Cannabis plants in vegetation stage require lots of nutrients, especially Nitrogen which is build right into the cell walls as the plant grows. Growers must keep an eye on all facets of plant health during this time (water, pH, humidity, etc.) to ensure a strong plant that can support flower production. When plants are vegging, this is also the right time to employ any stress training techniques which may involve bending, pruning, or otherwise stressing the plant.

W

Water Hash

Similar to “Ice Hash” above, this is a solventless technique to producing cannabis extracts that uses water and ice to remove trichomes from the cannabis material.

Watts

A unit of measure power, especially as it relates to indoor lighting solutions. Growers using HID lights may see bulbs ranging from 150 Watts to upwards of 1000 Watts. The higher the wattage, the more electricity is going to be used up per unit of time. This is why lower powered lighting options like LED or compact fluorescent are appealing to new growers because they can produce a good number of lumens, but will far fewer watts required to power them.

Wax

One potential outcome when making cannabis extracts. Depending on the consistency you come up with, this could closely resemble other concentrates like shatter, crumble, taffy, or snap n’ pull. Wax will also sometimes have visible crystallized THC ‘diamonds’ that are separating out of solution and can give the product a nice shining glimmer in the right light. Wax, like all other concentrates, can be consumed on a rig, in a pen, or use top-off a joint, pip, or bong hit.

Weed

A slang term for marijuana that is still used widely to this day. The name was quite obviously acquired to describe the way that the plant grows in the wild – fast and free. Weed can be used in reference to almost anything in cannabis culture, but primarily serves as a reference to the actual dried flower itself.

Winterize

Another process of post-extraction refinement wherein the product is rinsed with ethanol and then frozen. This pulls out all impurities such as plant waxes, lipids, and other contaminants into a separate layer, which are then easily purged off when the product is brought back to room temperature.

Y

Yield

A measure of the amount of cannabis flower that a marijuana flower can produce, measure in either ounces or pounds. Obtaining a big yield is the goal for most cannabis growers as this means more product to smoke yourself or sell to the highest bidder. Yield can also be measured according to per plant limits, or what a growing space can produce for every square foot.

Z

Zone

Sometimes used as a slag term to describe an ounce of marijuana (i.e., 28 grams). Other terms for ounce used on the street may include OZ. ozzie or simply an “O”. Interesting fact about ounces is that they are actually 28.35 grams, although don’t be surprised if yours is only 28.

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